Symptoms of cardiovascular disease are a group of diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels. Although this definition makes any disease process affecting the cardiovascular system (heart disease + vascular disease) fall into the same category, in common parlance it generally refers to various diseases related to atherosclerosis.
The narrowing of the blood vessels that can accompany this disease, or their blockage, or their excessive enlargement (aneurysm), are in fact responsible for very widespread diseases, such as coronary artery (angina pectoris and heart attack), cerebral (stroke) and blood vessels Peripheral (intermittent claudication). Cardiovascular diseases include all congenital heart defects, rheumatic diseases involving the heart muscle, various forms of arrhythmias, diseases affecting the heart valves and heart failure.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally, particularly in countries with a typical Western lifestyle. Disorders that affect the heart or blood vessels are referred to as cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are usually divided into:
- Heart disorders: Heart disorders affect the heart, its valves, and the blood vessels that carry blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries).
- Peripheral vascular disease: Peripheral vascular disease affects the blood vessels of the arms, legs, and trunk (except for those that carry blood to the heart).
Diseases affecting the blood vessels that supply the brain are called cerebral vasculature. L’stroke is an example.
Symptoms of heart disease
There are no symptoms, by themselves, that indicate with certainty the presence of a heart disorder, but some indicate the possibility of its presence and coexistence with many other symptoms can provide an almost certain diagnosis, especially symptoms of heart disease in women. Doctors identify symptoms by asking the patient about the medical history and performing a physical examination. Diagnostic procedures are often performed to confirm the diagnosis. Sometimes, however, heart disease, even when severe, can be asymptomatic until it reaches an advanced stage of the disease. The medical tests that are performed can detect heart diseases without symptoms. Sometimes, doctors will perform tests for heart disease, even when there is no evidence of it.
What are the symptoms of heart disease?
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world. This is mainly due to the vision style we drive. Life has actually become more active but also more stable. This also increases stress levels, which, of course, is not good for the heart. If we add to all this an unhealthy diet, alcohol abuse and smoking it is clear how much we put our heart at risk. Many cardiovascular diseases present only with small signs and symptoms that are not always well recognizable.
Symptoms that you should pay attention to are early symptoms of heart disease. Here are a series of symptoms that must be controlled in order to monitor any cardiovascular diseases:
- Sudden headache: It can be a symptom of changes in blood pressure. Recognizable above all if you feel the temples and neck throbbing strongly
- Angina: It is not a real local pain, but rather a feeling of oppression in the center of the chest that sometimes hits the stomach, so much so that it is mistaken for a problem in the digestive system. This sensation can also radiate down the left arm, jaw, and back. Angina is a sign of blockage of the coronary arteries
- Shortness of breath: it can be associated with various diseases such as heart, respiratory, neurological, psychological or metabolic problems (such as anemia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, etc.). Shortness of breath of cardiac origin generally occurs during physical exertion or in a supine position (orthopnea).
Cardiac dyspnea is associated with a decrease in the performance of the heart muscle. It is possible that the excess blood, which cannot be pushed towards the lower part of the body, may stagnate in the lungs, causing acute pulmonary edema. Cardiac dyspnea may be due to valve or heart muscle disease, or to a lack of blood circulation in the coronary artery.
- Fainting: This is a sudden loss of consciousness. Fainting may be due to disease of the valve or heart muscle, but it is more often associated with a heart rhythm disorder
There are two types of arrhythmias that can cause fainting:
- Bradycardia: A condition defined as a drop in the heart rate below 60 beats per minute that causes a kind of temporary stop in the heartbeat for a few seconds and a consequent decrease in blood supply to the brain
- Ventricular tachycardia: is an irregular heartbeat that can progress to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. It consists of an accelerated beat starting in the ventricles, so fast and turbulent that it does not allow the heart to fill with blood adequately and pump it towards the brain, resulting in reduced blood flow.
- Heart palpitations: ranges from a sensation of a ‘sinking heart’ or ‘loss of pulse’, typical of extrasystoles, to tachycardia. It is essential to be able to assess the type of arrhythmia that is sinus, supraventricular, or ventricular. If you experience any of these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately or go to the nearest hospital.
Symptoms of heart disease in women
All women face the risk of heart disease. Knowing the symptoms and risks that are unique to women, as well as eating a heart-healthy diet and exercising, can protect you from heart disease.
Heart disease is often seen as a bigger problem for men. However, it is the most common cause of death for both women and men. Since some of the symptoms of heart disease in women may differ from the symptoms of heart disease in men,
Fortunately, by knowing the unique symptoms of heart disease, women can begin to reduce their risk.
Symptoms of a heart attack in women
The most common symptoms of a heart attack in women are the same as in men, a type of chest pain, pressure or discomfort that lasts for more than a few minutes or comes and goes. But chest pain is not always severe or even the most obvious symptom, especially in women. Women often describe it as stress or tension. It is possible to have a heart attack without chest pain. Women are more likely than men to have heart attack symptoms not related to chest pain, such as:
- Discomfort in the neck, jaw, shoulders, upper back, or abdomen
- shortness of breath
- Pain in one or both arms
- Nausea or vomiting
- dizziness or lightheadedness;
- unusual tiredness
These symptoms can be as vague and unnoticeable as the crushing chest pain often associated with heart attacks. This may be because women tend to have blockages not only in the main arteries, but also in the smaller arteries that supply blood to the heart, a condition called cardiac microvascular disease or coronary microvascular disease.
Women tend to have symptoms more often when resting or even sleeping than men. Emotional stress can play a role in triggering heart attack symptoms in women.
Because women don’t always recognize the symptoms of a heart attack, they tend to show up in emergency rooms after heart damage has occurred. Also, because their symptoms often differ from those of men, women may be diagnosed with heart disease less often than men. Symptoms of heart disease in young people.
Symptoms of heart disease in children
Symptoms of heart disease in children usually appear in the form of severe congenital heart defects soon after birth or during the first few months of life. Signs and symptoms may include:
- Pale gray or blue skin color (cyanosis)
- Rapid breathing
- Swelling in the legs, abdomen and the area around the eyes
- Difficulty breathing while feeding, which leads to poor weight gain
Less serious congenital heart defects may not be diagnosed until later in childhood, when the baby may not show noticeable signs of a problem. If signs and symptoms appear in older children, they may include:
- It’s easy to feel short of breath with exercise or activity
- Tendency to tire when playing sports or activity
- Fainting when playing sports or activity
- Swelling of the hands, ankles, or feet
Causes of heart disease
The causes of heart disease depend on the type of heart disease. There are many different types of heart disease. To understand the causes of heart disease, it is helpful to know how the heart works.
How does the heart work?
heart pump. It is a muscular organ the size of a fist, located slightly to the left of the center of the chest. The heart is divided into the right side and the left side.
- The right side of the heart consists of the right atrium and the right ventricle. It collects blood and pumps it to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries.
- The lungs supply the blood with a new amount of oxygen. The lungs also expel carbon dioxide, which is a waste product from the body.
- The oxygen-rich blood then enters the left side of the heart, which consists of the left atrium and left ventricle.
- The left side of the heart pumps blood through the body’s largest artery (the aorta) to supply oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body.
The heart’s four valves keep blood moving in the right direction by opening one way and only when needed. For valves to function properly, they must be machined properly, opened fully, and closed tightly so that there is no leakage. The four valves are as follows:
- Tricuspid valve
- pulmonary valve
The beating heart compresses (contracts) and relaxes in a continuous cycle.
- During systole, the ventricles contract forcefully, directing blood from the blood vessels to the lungs and the rest of the body.
- During relaxation (diastole), the ventricles fill with blood coming from the two upper chambers (the right and left atrium).
The electrical circuit of the heart makes it beat. The heartbeat controls the continuous exchange of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood. This exchange makes you alive.
- Electrical signals begin in the upper part of the right chamber (the right atrium) and travel through specific pathways to the
- ventricles, carrying the signal for the heart to pump.
The system keeps the heart beating in a coordinated, normal rhythm, which keeps blood flowing.
Certain types of heart disease symptoms, such as heart defects, cannot be prevented. However, the same lifestyle changes that can improve heart disease can help prevent it, such as the following:
- Do not smoke.
- Control high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes.
- Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day most days of the week.
- Eat a diet low in salt and saturated fat.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Reducing and controlling stress.
- Have good health habits.
The symptoms of heart disease in women, the symptoms of heart disease in men, the symptoms of heart disease in young men, and the symptoms of heart disease in children are all similar, despite the existence of fundamental differences between them. Good follow-up and periodic examination is necessary to check on your health.